Hateruma (波照間島; Hateruma-jima; Yaeyama: Patirooma, Hateruma dialect: Besїma "our island", Okinawan: Hatiruma) is an island in the Yaeyama District of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Part of the town Taketomi, it is the southern-most inhabited island in Japan at 24°2’25" north latitude, 123°47’16" east longitude. Hateruma is one of the Yaeyama Islands, and is located 24 kilometres (15 mi) south of Iriomote-jima, the largest of the island group.Hateruma, which is composed of corals, has 12.7 km² of area and approximately 600 inhabitants.
The primary products of the island include sugarcane, pineapple, refined sugar, and Awanami, a highly prized type of the alcoholic beverage awamori. Its southern location makes it one of the few places in Japan where the Southern Cross can be observed.