Hateruma (波照間島; Hateruma-jima; Yaeyama: Patirooma, Hateruma dialect: Besїma "our island", Okinawan: Hatiruma, Northern Ryukyuan: はたら Patara) is an island in the Yaeyama District of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Part of the town Taketomi, it is the southernmost inhabited island in Japan at 24°2’25" north latitude, 123°47’16" east longitude. Hateruma is one of the Yaeyama Islands, and is located 24 kilometres (15 mi) south of Iriomote-jima, the largest of the island group.Hateruma, which is composed of corals, has 12.7 km2 of area and approximately 600 inhabitants.
The primary products of the island include sugarcane, pineapple, refined sugar, and Awanami, a highly prized type of the alcoholic beverage awamori. Its southern location makes it one of the few places in Japan where the Southern Cross can be observed.