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Uttar Pradesh, India
Sarnath (Hindustani pronunciation: [saːɾnaːtʰ], also referred to as Sarangnath, Isipatana, Rishipattana, Migadaya, or Mrigadava) is a place located 10 kilometres (6.2 miles) northeast of Varanasi, near the confluence of the Ganges and the Varuna rivers in Uttar Pradesh, India. Sarnath is where, circa 528 BCE, at 35 years of age, Gautama Buddha taught his first sermon after attaining enlightenment at Bodh Gaya. It is also where the Buddhist sangha first came into existence as a result of the enlightenment of his first five disciples (Kaundinya, Assaji, Bhaddiya, Vappa and Mahanama). According to the Mahaparinibbana Sutta (Sutta 16 of the Digha Nikaya), the Buddha mentioned Sarnath as one of the four places of pilgrimage his devout followers should visit and look upon with feelings of reverence. The other three sites are Lumbini (the birthplace of the Buddha), Bodh Gaya (where the Buddha achieved enlightenment), and Kushinagar (where the Buddha attained parinirvana).