Nagoya (名古屋市, Nagoya-shi) ([na̠ɡo̞ja̠]) [naꜜɡoja] ) is the largest city in the Chūbu region, the fourth-most populous city and third most populous urban area in Japan, with a population of 2.3 million in 2020. It is one of the three major cities of Japan (Tokyo-Osaka-Nagoya). Located on the Pacific coast in central Honshu, it is the capital and the most populous city of Aichi Prefecture, and is one of Japan's major ports along with those of Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe, Yokohama, and Chiba. It is the principal city of the Chūkyō metropolitan area, which is the third-most populous metropolitan area in Japan with a population of 10.11 million in 2020.In 1610, the warlord Tokugawa Ieyasu, a retainer of Oda Nobunaga, moved the capital of Owari Province from Kiyosu to Nagoya. This period saw the renovation of Nagoya Castle. The arrival of the 20th century brought a convergence of economic factors that fueled rapid growth in Nagoya, during the Meiji Restoration, and became a major industrial hub for Japan. The traditional manufactures of timepieces, bicycles, and sewing machines were followed by the production of special steels, ceramic, chemicals, oil, and petrochemicals, as the area's automobile, aviation, and shipbuilding industries flourished. These factors made the city a target for US air raids during World War II.
Following the war, Nagoya's economy diversified, but the city remains a significant centre for industry and transport in Japan. It is linked with Tokyo, Kyōto, and Osaka by the Tokaido Shinkansen, and is home to the Nagoya Stock Exchange as well as the headquarters of Brother Industries, Ibanez, Lexus, and Toyota Tsusho, among others. Nagoya is home of educational institutes such as Nagoya University, the Nagoya Institute of Technology, and Nagoya City University. Famous landmarks in the city include Atsuta Shrine, Higashiyama Zoo and Botanical Gardens, Port of Nagoya Public Aquarium, Nagoya Castle, and Hisaya Ōdori Park, and Nagoya TV Tower, one of the oldest TV towers in Japan.